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RBI & how its policies can start to affect the market
Disclaimer: This DD is to help start forming a market view as per RBI announcements. Also a gentle reminder that fundamentals play out over a longer time frame than intraday. The authors take no responsiblity for your yolos. With contributions by Asli Bakchodi, Bran OP & dragononweed! What is the RBI? RBI is the central bank of India. They are one of the key players who affect India’s economic trajectory. They control currency supply, banking rules and more. This means that it is not a bank in which retailers or corporates can open an account with. Instead they are a bank for bankers and the Government of India. Their functions can be broadly classified into 6. · Monetary authority · Financial supervisor for financial system · Issuer of currency · Manages Foreign exchange · Bankers bank · Banker to the government This DD will take a look at each of these functions. It will be followed by a list of rates the RBI sets, and how changes in them can affect the market. 1.Monetary Authority One of RBI’s functions is to achieve the goal of “Price Stability” in the economy. This essentially means achieving an inflation rate that is within a desired limit. A monetary policy committee (MPC) decides on the desired inflation rate and its limits through majority vote of its 6 members, in consultation with the GoI. The current inflation target for RBI is as follows Consumer Price Inflation (CPI): 4% Upper Limit: 6% Lower Limit: 2% An increase in CPI means less purchasing power. Generally speaking, if inflation is too high, the public starts cutting down on spending, leading to a negative impact on the markets. And vice versa. Lower inflation leads to more purchasing power, more spending, more investments leading to a positive impact on the market. 2.Financial Supervisor For Financial System A financial system consists of financial markets (Capital market, money market, forex market etc.), financial institutions (banks, stock exchanges, NBFC etc) & financial assets (currencies, bills, bonds etc) RBI supervises this entire system and lays down the rules and regulations for it. It can also use further ‘Selective Credit Controls’ to regulate banks. 3.Issues of currency The RBI is responsible for the printing of currency notes. RBI is free to print as much as it wants as long as the minimum reserve of Rs 200 Cr (Gold 112 Cr) is maintained. The RBI has total assets or a balance size sheet of Rs. 51 trillion (April 2020). (1 Trillion = 1 Lakh crore) India’s current reserves mean our increase in currency circulation is well managed. 4.Manages Foreign Exchange RBI regulates all of India’s foreign exchange transactions. It is the custodian of all of foreign currencies in India. It allows for the foreign exchange value of the rupee to be controlled. RBI also buy and sell rupees in the foreign exchange market at its discretion. In case of any currency movement, a country’s central bank can directly intervene to either push the currency up, as India has been doing, or to keep it artificially low, as the Chinese central bank does. To push up a currency, a central bank can sell dollars, which is the global reserve currency, or the currency against which all others are measured. To push down a currency, a central bank can buy dollars. The RBI deciding this depends on the import/export and financial health of the country. Generally a weaker rupee means imports are more expensive, but are favourable for exports. And a stronger rupee means imports are cheaper but are unfavourable for exports. A weaker rupee can make foreign investment more lucrative driving up FII. A stronger rupee can have an adverse effect of FII investing in markets. 5.Banker’s Bank Every bank has to maintain a certain amount of reserve with the RBI. A certain percentage of a bank’s liabilities (anywhere between 3-15% as decided by RBI) has to be maintained in this account. This is called the Cash Reserve Ratio. This is determined by the MPC during the monetary policy review (which happens every six weeks at present). It lends money from this reserve to other banks if they are short on cash, but generally, it is seen as a last resort move. Banks are encouraged to meet their shortfalls of cash from other resources. 6.Banker to the government RBI is the entity that carries out ALL monetary transactions on behalf of the Government. It holds custody of the cash balance of the Government, gives temporary loans to both central and state governments and manages the debt operations of the central Government, through instruments of debt and the interest rates associated with them - like bonds. The different rates set & managed by RBI - Repo rate The rate at which RBI is willing to lend to commercial banks is called as Repo Rate. Banks sometimes need money for emergency or to maintain the SLR and CRR (explained below). They borrow this from RBI but have to pay some interest on it. The interest that is to be paid on the amount to the RBI is called as Repo Rate. It does not function like a normal loan but acts like a forward contract. Banks have to provide collateral like government bonds, T-bills etc. Repo means Repurchase Option is the true meaning of Repo an agreement where the bank promises to repurchase these government securities after the repo period is over. As a tool to control inflation, RBI increases the Repo Rate making it more expensive for banks to borrow from the RBI with a view to restrict availability of money. Exact opposite stance shall be taken in case of deflationary environment. The change of repo rate is aimed to affect the flow of money in the economy. An increase in repo rate decreases the flow of money in the economy, while the decrease in repo rate increases the flow of money in the economy. RBI by changing these rates shows its stance to the economy at large whether they prioritize growth or inflation. - Reverse Repo Rate The rate at which the RBI is willing to borrow from the Banks is called as Reverse Repo Rate. If the RBI increases the reverse repo rate, it means that the RBI is willing to offer lucrative interest rate to banks to park their money with the RBI. Banks in this case agree to resell government securities after reverse repo period. Generally, an increase in reverse repo rate that banks will have a higher incentive to park their money with RBI. It decreases liquidity, affecting the market in a negative manner. Decrease in reverse repo rate increases liquidity affecting the market in a positive manner. Both the repo rate and reverse repo rate fall under the Liquidity Adjustment Facility tools for RBI. - Cash reserve ratio (CRR) Banks in India are required to deposit a specific percentage of their net demand and time liabilities (NDTL) in the form of CASH with the RBI. This minimum ratio (that is the part of the total deposits to be held as cash) is stipulated by the RBI and is known as the CRR or Cash Reserve Ratio. These reserves will not be in circulation at any point in time. For example, if a bank had a NDTL (like current Account, Savings Account and Fixed Deposits) of 100Cr and the CRR is at 3%, it would have to keep 3Cr as Cash reserve ratio to the RBI. This amount earns no interest. Currently it is at 3%. A lower cash ratio means banks can deposit just a lower amount and use the remaining money leading to higher liquidity. This translates to more money to invest which is seen as positive for the market. Inversely, a higher cash ratio equates to lower liquidity which translates to a negative market sentiment. Thus, the RBI uses the CRR to control excess money flow and regulate liquidity in the economy. - Statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) Banks in India have to keep a certain percentage of their net demand and time liabilities WITH THEMSELVES. And this can be in the form of liquid assets like gold and government securities, not just cash. A lot of banks keep them in government bonds as they give a decent interest. The current SLR ratio of 18.25%, which means that for every Rs.100 deposited in a bank, it has to invest Rs.18.50 in any of the asset classes approved by RBI. A low SLR means higher levels of loans to the private sector. This boosts investment and acts as a positive sentiment for the market. Conversely a high SLR means tighter levels of credit and can cause a negative effect on the market. Essentially, the RBI uses the SLR to control ease of credit in the economy. It also ensures that the banks maintain a certain level of funds to meet depositor’s demands instead of over liquidation. - Bank Rate Bank rate is a rate at which the Reserve Bank of India provides the loan to commercial banks without keeping any security. There is no agreement on repurchase that will be drawn up or agreed upon with no collateral as well. This is different from repo rate as loans taken with repo rate are taken on the basis of securities. Bank rate hence is higher than the repo rate. Currently the bank rate is 4.25%. Since bank rate is essentially a loan interest rate like repo rate, it affects the market in similar ways. - Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR) This is the minimum rate below which the banks are not allowed to lend. Raising this rate, makes loans more expensive, drying up liquidity, affecting the market in a negative way. Similarly, lower MCLR rates will bring in high liquidity, affecting the market in a positive way. MCLR is a varying lending rate instead of a single rate according to the kind of loans. Currently, the MCLR rate is between 6.65% - 7.15% - Marginal Standing facility Marginal Standing Facility is the interest rate at which a depository institution (generally banks) lends or borrows funds with another depository institution in the overnight market. Overnight market is the part of financial market which offers the shortest term loans. These loans have to be repaid the next day. MSF can be used by a bank after it exhausts its eligible security holdings for borrowing under other options like the Liquidity adjustment facilities. The MSF would be a penal rate for banks and the banks can borrow funds by pledging government securities within the limits of the statutory liquidity ratio. The current rate stands at 4.25%. The effect it has on the market is synonymous with the other lending rates such as repo rate & bank rate. - Loan to value ratio The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is an assessment of lending risk that financial institutions and other lenders examine before approving a mortgage. Typically, loan assessments with high LTV ratios are considered higher risk loans. Basically, if a companies preferred form of collateral rises in value and leads the market (growing faster than the market), then the company will see the loans that it signed with higher LTV suddenly reduce (but the interest rate remains the same). Let’s consider an example of gold as a collateral. Consider a loan was approved with gold as collateral. The market price for gold is Rs 2000/g, and for each g, a loan of Rs 1500 was given. (The numbers are simplified for understanding). This would put LTV of the loan at 1500/2000 = 0.75. Since it is a substantial LTV, say the company priced the loan at 20% interest rate. Now the next year, the price of gold rose to Rs 3000/kg. This would mean that the LTV of the current loan has changed to 0.5 but the company is not obligated to change the interest rate. This means that even if the company sees a lot of defaults, it is fairly protected by the unexpected surge in the underlying asset. Moreover, since the underlying asset is more valuable, default rates for the loans goes down as people are more protective of the collateral they have placed. The same scenario for gold is happening right now and is the reason for gold backed loan providers like MUTHOOT to hit ATHs as gold is leading the economy right now. Also, these in these scenarios, it also enables companies to offer additional loan on same gold for those who are interested Instead of keeping the loan amount same most of the gold loan companies. Based on above, we can see that as RBI changes LTV for certain assets, we are in a position to identify potential institutions that could get a good Quarterly result and try to enter it early. Conclusion The above rates contain the ways in the Central Bank manages the monetary policy, growth and inflation in the country. Its impact on Stock market is often seen when these rates are changed, they act as triggers for the intraday positions on that day. But overall, the outlook is always maintained on how the RBI sees the country is doing, and knee jerk reactions are limited to intraday positions. The long term stance is always well within the limits of the outlook the big players in the market are expecting. The important thing to keep in mind is that the problems facing the economy needn’t be uni-dimensional. Problems with inflation, growth, liquidity, currency depreciation all can come together, for which the RBI will have to play a balancing role with all it powers to change these rates and the forex reserve. So the effect on the market needs to be given more thought than simply extrapolated as ‘rates go low, markets go up’. But understanding these individual effects of these rates allows you to start putting together the puzzle of how and where the market and the economy could go.
No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India
This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got. I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are) Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010. One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit. Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells. So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain). Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided. It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)
Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles.India bought something and paid for it.State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.
Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.
The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.
Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally. Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no. From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period,the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground. 1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example seeRajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist.[...]Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.
Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
Since mid-April, financial tensions have been easing in the emerging countries. Bolstered by the very gradual return of portfolio investment, exchange rates have stabilised.
Since mid-May, cumulative net inflows of non-resident portfolio investment into bond and equity markets amounted to USD 22 bn (according to data from the Institute for International Finance (IIF) for a selection of 20 emerging countries), compared to cumulative net outflows of USD 100 bn from the end of February to mid-May
As a result, the emerging market currencies have regained some of the ground lost in the first 3 to 4 months of the year (+1.6% on average since mid-March, vs. -6% in Q1). Equity prices, in contrast, have erased most of their losses (+17% on average since the end of March, vs. -20% in Q1). Is this normalisation process, which is very advanced in the equity markets, truly justified?
cyclical indicators suggest a recovery in H2 2020. Yet the size and diffusion of the recovery remains highly uncertain. For this reason, the rebound in local equity markets seems a bit excessive and even premature. In Brazil, India and Mexico, the pandemic is not under control, and some governments have even imposed new, selective lockdowns.
Despite the surge in fiscal deficits, for the moment we have not observed any difficulties in refinancing public debt. Bond yields have been held down through conventional monetary easing (via policy rate cuts, which have been widespread throughout the emerging countries) and/or through quantitative easing (by expanding the ways in which central banks can refinance banks and indirectly companies, or through the monetary financing of fiscal deficits). Yet if the pandemic persists, this financial support will not prevent an upsurge in delinquencies and non-performing loans.
Lastly, higher risk premiums on sovereign debt in the local currency increase the attractiveness of carry trades and the inflow of volatile capital at a time when the emerging countries need financial stability even more than usual. For of a selection of 17 emerging countries, the median yield spread between the sovereign bond and a bond with an equivalent maturity in the financing currency (USD, EUR or JPY) remained stable at about 450 basis points (bp) between end-December 2019 and end-June 2020. But this spread must be looked at in terms of foreign exchange volatility to evaluate the profitability of the carry trade. After taking into account the policy rate differential, and thus the possibility of short-term foreign exchange coverage of positions (via the futures market or currency swaps), the median yield spread has nearly tripled, from 80bp to 200bp. For investors ready to take the risk of rolling over very short-term forex hedges, the spread is very attractive.
Hello, Just wanted to share some of my legitimate concerns around decentralised finance with the broader community. To be quite clear - I am a huge fan of Ethereum and DeFi and believe this could lead to the future of finance. However, I do worry if there is a circle jerk within the community that could lead to a lack of adoption in the coming months. I will try and keep this as short as possible. By all means, do understand I am coming from the pov of sharing constructive criticism and not dissing on the efforts of those building. If you are solving for these problems in particular, please ping me and I'd love to talk further with you
On-ramps The largest problem for much of the developing world is the fact that while DAI can without doubt give dollar exposure, acquiring them is quite a difficult task. In fact if DAI demand goes up substantially in a region, it could have premiums of upto 25% which makes it a bad on-ramp tool without necessary liquidity in place. (check Wazir X p2p USDT rates in India for context). This problem is not endemic to DAI alone but is applicable to stable tokens of all kinds. With regional regulations in nations like Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Phillipines, Malaysia and India not being clear on stable tokens in particular, it becomes an uphill task for developers to build on it. More importantly, it becomes less appealing for the average individual to use. Now typically this wouldnt matter if the point of DeFi was to be a niche project aimed at a small community. However, DeFi has the power to be the first mass market blockchain tool for the world. Consider it to be the "e-mail" or "napster" moment for blockchain based applications. IF we are to scale then on-ramps and off-ramps need to be solved for. This can happen only and if the community begins engaging with regional regulators and exchanges begin providing solutions. In an ideal world, acquiring stable tokens should be as easy as venmo'ing someone $10 dollar and receiving say $9.90 (1% fee) in Incento (incento.io seems interesting, not shilling but do check them out!)
Incumbent Efficiency In order for a system to scale past a certain point, the value add it brings needs to be considerably higher than the incumbent. Depending on the size of the remittance market, there exists multiple payments and wire transfer corridors set up by startups today to solve for quick transfers. In fact during times when a blockchain like those of Ethereum's or Bitcoin's are clogged - transferwise can prove to be a cheaper, better alternative than tokens. This is not to diss on the fact that decentralisation and immutability has a price attached to them, but for the average user today alternatives are far better than token based products. The challenge when it comes to scaling - especially towards L2 is whether products can be incrementally better than their incumbents in exchange for some trade offs (eg: relative centralisation in lightning for minimal fees and quicker confirmation). Today's DeFi apps have to make a call between being ideological and efficient because it seems there is a price attached to ideology and retail users aren't willing to pay that price.
Slippage Much props to Kyber and Uniswap for solving for this on most DeFi apps but there remains challenges in how settlements for defi instruments today happen. As the scale of volume on products like DyDx and Nuo increase and the expected accuracy at which trade settlements are anticipated to be limited to, there will come a point in time where traditional market-makers will have to enter the system. At $500 million the DeFi space's largest traders constantly reel from price slippages and a lack of liquidity. How can we scale to $10 billion or $1 trillion without the kind of liquidity that could instill confidence in large whales. In order to solve this, there will come a point in time where hedge funds and dark pool service providers from traditional markets begin targetting DeFi instruments. The community will likely see this as an all out assault on the principles DeFi has been built upon but to be honest, this will be a quintessential requirement for the space to grow. We are seeing an early variant of this already with the likes of Cred raising $50 million to re-issue as debt (yes, not entirely DeFi) or with MakerDAO having VC partners that come from traditional backgrounds. Even in the case of products like Dharma and compound, the market-makers are hedge funds. We will see a convergence of traditional market products and DeFi soon. That will be an exciting phase imo.
Product-Market Fit Debt is one of the oldest financial innovations in the markets. Quite literally. Some of the first ever tablets recorded debt obligations and as such have been quintessential to the growth of human civilisation. MakerDAO's proposition of issuing token backed debt is by all means revolutionary but in order to see true scale, DeFi has to grow beyond the individuals that can give assets as collateral. I reckon there will be a new layer of growth for DeFi soon that will be powered with open-data and AI. One where an individual's credit worthiness could be checked with the individual's permission on basis of on-chain tx activity and self sovereign identity. I also see a market for AI based lending rate predictions and forex management by central banks. Autonomous agents can realistically analyse tx's in and out of a country, account for macro-economic indicators and optimise internal lending rates and foreign currency reserves. Ofcourse it is too early for any of this to take place but within the next decade our markets will be far more (i) closer due to globalisation and (ii) automated due to improvements in AI. DeFi is all well and good but if we are going to beat the same old drums of economic instruments that were created thousands of years back, there may be no real value proposition here. LsDAI, rDAI, CDAI, DAI... are all interesting but the average user sees no value yet. Which makes me wonder if we are sitting around patting each other's back before we see something productive (a unicorn from the DeFi ecosystem perhaps?)
Scale 4.5 billion. That's the number of unbanked individuals that can be catered to with an L2 payments solution powered by Ethereum. Challenges? On-ramp, storage of private keys, user education and bloody hell - marketing and user education. Emphasis on the last 2 because I feel not much focus is given on it. We can no longer build and hope the markets come. We are in an era of Zombie startups where startups with north of $100 million+ valuations in Mcap, that raised north of $10million in 2017 from ICOs are sitting on ~1000 users a month. People think the alts blood seepage is done but it is likely that that bleeding wont stop until we find users. And when we do find users, we cant expect them to be using a gazillion tokens, each with weird token economics and even more complex functioning to be using them. Standardising of token interactions through wallets and interoperability will solve for these challenges but its time we asked what are the biggest problems DeFi can solve today? Here are some hints.. NFT based Income share agreements -Non collateralised debt for gig economy corporations that are registered as DAOs -DAO treasury management -Forex off-ramps for tourists (P2P) More on these later..
The proven oil reserves in Venezuela are recognized as the LARGEST in the world, totaling 297 billion barrels. While ignoring (and even supporting) the atrocities of authoritarian regimes in places like Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Uzbekistan, US oligarchs have targeted Venezuela for “regime-change” in the name of “democracy”. Currently, the US is engaging in economic warfare against Venezuela to foment a coup and remove its democratically elected president Nicolás Maduro. Without providing solid evidence, our corporate-controlled government and mainstream media portray Maduro as a corrupt, repressive, and illegitimate leader with little to no support.
Why is the US Corporatocracy so Keen to Remove Maduro?
While Venezuela’s economy is not a strictly-state-run economy, its oil industry is nationalized and uses its revenues for the benefit of its citizens (especially the poor). After years of crippling US sanctions Maduro stepped over a crucial line in October when his government announced that Venezuela was abandoning the US dollar and would be make all future transactions on the Venezuelan exchange market in euro. Saddam Hussein also went off the dollar in favor of the euro in 2003 – we started dropping bombs on him the next month. A similar decision by the Gadhafi government in Libya (2011) was quickly followed by a devastating US-orchestrated conflict - culminating in Gadhafi's capture by radical Islamists who sodomized him with a bayonet before killing him. Since then, Libya has gone from Africa's wealthiest country to a truly failed-state complete with a slave trade! To make matters worse, after the collapse of the Libyan government, its military arms were smuggled out of that country and into the hands of ISIS fighters in Iraq and Syria - enabling US-orchestrated chaos in those countries.
Who cares what currency a country uses to trade petroleum?
Answer: US oligarchy
The US dollar is central to US world economic domination. Like all other modern currencies, it is a fiat currency – backed by no real assets to prop up its value. In lieu of a “gold standard” we know operate on a de-facto “oil-standard”: "After the collapse of the Bretton Woods gold standard in the early 1970s, the United States struck a deal with Saudi Arabia to standardize oil prices in dollar terms. Through this deal, the petrodollar system was born, along with a paradigm shift away from pegged exchanged rates and gold-backed currencies to non-backed, floating rate regimes. The petrodollar system elevated the U.S. dollar to the world's reserve currency and, through this status, the United States enjoys persistent trade deficits and is a global economic hegemony." Investopedia “The central banking Ponzi scheme requires an ever-increasing base of demand and the immediate silencing of those who would threaten its existence. Perhaps that is what the hurry [was] in removing Gaddafi in particular and those who might have been sympathetic to his monetary idea.” Anthony Wile
US Foreign Policy is about Oligarchy Not Democracy
Since World War II, the US has attempted to over-throw the 52 foreign governments. Aside from a handful of exceptions (China, Cuba, Vietnam, etc.), the US has been successful in the vast majority of these attempts. US foreign policy is not about democracy – it is about exploiting the world’s resources in the interests of a small, ultra-wealthy global elite. This exploitation benefits a small percentage of people at the top of the economic pyramid while the costs are born by those at the bottom.
US CIA Coup Playbook:
How to Plunder Resources from Foreign Countries While Pretending to Support Democracy
Find a country with resources you want.
Send in an “Economic Hitman” to offer bribes the country’s leader in the form of personally lucrative business deals. If he accepts the deal, the leader will amass a personal fortune in exchange for "privatizing” the resources you wish to extract.
If the leader will not accept your bribes, begin the regime-change process. 3) Engage in economic warfare by imposing crippling sanctions on the country and blame the ensuing shortages on the leader’s “socialist” policies. 4) Work with right-wing allies inside country to fund and organize an “astroturf” opposition group behind a corporate-friendly puppet. 5) Hire thugs inside country to incite unrest and violence against the government in coordination with your opposition group. Use corporate media to publicize the orchestrated outbursts as popular outrage and paint a picture of a “failed state” mired in corruption and chaos. 6) When the government arrests your thugs, decry the response as the brutal repression. Use corporate-owned media to demonize the target government as a despotic regime while praising your puppet opposition as champions of democracy. 7) Work with right-wing military leaders to organize the overthrow the government (offer them the same business deals the current leader refused). 8) If a military-led coup cannot be organized, create a mercenary army to carry out acts of terrorism against the government and its supporters. Portray the mercenaries as “freedom fighters” and their acts of terrorism as a “civil war”. 9) If the target government has popular and military support and is too well-defended for your mercenaries to over-throw: label the country a “rouge state” and wait for the right time to invade. Meanwhile, continue to wear the country’s government and populace down using steps 3 – 8. 10) Escalate the terror campaign within the country to provoke a military response from the country against the US. If they won’t take the bait , fabricate an attack or threat that you can sell to the US population as justification for an invasion. 11) Once the government is removed, set up your puppet regime to provide the illusion of sovereignty. The regime will facilitate and legitimize your appropriation of the country’s resources under the guise of "free" trade. 12) As you continue to extract the country’s resources, provide intelligence and military support to the puppet regime to suppress popular dissent within the country. 13) Use the demise of the former government as yet another example of the impracticality of “socialism.” What Can I Do? Call your senators and representatives to voice your opposition to US regime-change efforts in Venezuela. https://www.commoncause.org/find-your-representative/ Please share this message with others. Sources included at: https://link.medium.com/8DiA5xzx4T
ALAN MACLEOD FEBRUARY 8, 2019 A recent Gallup poll (8/13/18) found that a majority of millennials view socialism favorably, preferring it to capitalism. Democratic socialist Bernie Sanders is the most popular politician in the United States, while new leftist Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez’s (AOC) policies of higher taxes on the wealthy, free healthcare and public college tuition are highly popular—even among Republican voters (FAIR.org,1/23/19). Alarmed by the growing threat of progressive policies at home, the establishment has found a one-word weapon to deploy against the rising tide: Venezuela. The trick is to attack any political figure or movement even remotely on the left by claiming they wish to turn the country into a “socialist wasteland” (Fox News, 2/2/19) run by a corrupt dictatorship, leaving its people hungry and devastated. Leading the charge have been Fox News and other conservative outlets. One Fox opinion piece (1/25/19) claimed that Americans should be “absolutely disgusted” by the “fraud” of Bernie Sanders and Democrats like Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Elizabeth Warren and Cory Booker, as they “continue to promote a system that is causing mass starvation and the collapse of a country,” warning that is exactly what their failed socialist policies would bring to the US. (Back in the real world, while Sanders and Ocasio-Cortez identify as socialists, Warren is a self-described capitalist, and Booker is noted for his ties to Wall Street, whose support for his presidential bid he has reportedly been soliciting.) A second Fox Newsarticle (1/27/19) continues in the same vein, warning that, “At the heart of Venezuela’s collapse is a laundry list of socialist policies that have decimated its economy.” TheWall Street Journal(1/28/19) describes calls for negotiations in Venezuela as “siding with the dictator.” In an article entitled “Bernie Sanders, Jeremy Corbyn and the Starving Children of Venezuela,” the Washington Examiner (6/15/17) warned its readers to “beware the socialist utopia,” describing it as a dystopia where children go hungry thanks to socialism. The Wall Street Journal (1/28/19) recently condemned Sanders for his support of a “dictator,” despite the fact Bernie has strongly criticized Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro, and dismissed Maduro’s predecessor, Hugo Chavez, as a “dead Communist dictator” (Reuters, 6/1/16). More supposedly centrist publications have continued this line of attack. The New York Times’ Bret Stephens (1/25/19) argued: “Venezuela is a socialist catastrophe. In the age of AOC, the lesson must be learned again”—namely, that “socialism never works,” as “20 years of socialism” has led to “the ruin of a nation.” The Miami Herald(2/1/19) cast shame on Sanders and AOC for arguing for socialism in the face of such overwhelming evidence against it, describing the left’s refusal to back self-appointed president Juan Guaidó, someone whomless than 20 percentof Venezuelans had even heard of, let alone voted for, as “morally repugnant.” This useful weapon to be used against the left can only be sustained by withholding a great number of key facts—chief among them, the US role in Venezuela’s devastation. US sanctions, according to the Venezuelan opposition’s economics czar, are responsible for a halving of the country’s oil output (FAIR.org, 12/17/18). The UN Human Rights Council has formally condemned the US and discussed reparations to be paid, with one UN special rapporteur describing Trump’s sanctions as a possible “crime against humanity” (London Independent, 1/26/19). This has not been reported by any the New York Times, Washington Post, CNN or any other national US “resistance” news outlet, which have been only too quick to support Trump’s regime change plans (FAIR.org, 1/25/19). Likewise, the local US-backed opposition’s role in the economic crisis is barely mentioned. The opposition, which controls much of the country’s food supply, has officially accepted responsibility for conducting an “economic war” by withholding food and other key goods. For example, the monolithic Empresas Polar controls the majority of the flour production and distribution crucial for making arepa cornbread, Venezuela’s staple food. Polar’s chair is Leopoldo Lopez, national coordinator of Juan Guaidó’s Popular Will party, while its president is Lorenzo Mendoza, who considered running for president against Maduro in the 2018 elections that caused pandemonium in the media (FAIR.org, 5/23/18). Conspicuously, it’s the products that Polar has a near-monopoly in that are often in shortest supply. This is hardly a secret, but never mentioned in the copious stories (CNN, 5/14/14, Bloomberg, 3/16/17, Washington Post, 5/22/17, NPR, 4/7/17) focusing on bread lines in the country. Also rarely commented on was the fact that multiple international election observer missions declared the 2018 elections free and fair, and that Venezuelan government spending as a proportion of GDP (often considered a barometer of socialism) is actually lower than the US’s, and far lower than most of Europe’s, according to the conservative Heritage Foundation. The LondonDaily Express(2/3/19) demonstrates that redbaiting works equally well on either side of the Atlantic. Regardless of these bothersome facts, the media has continued to present Venezuela’s supposedly socialist dictatorship as solely responsible for its crisis as a warning to any progressives who get the wrong idea. So useful is this tool that it is being used to attack progressive movements around the world. The Daily Express (2/3/19) and Daily Mail (2/3/19) condemned UK Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn for his “defense” of a “dictator,” while the Daily Telegraph(2/3/19) warned that the catastrophe of Venezuela is Labour’s blueprint for Britain. Meanwhile, the Greek leftist party Syriza’s support for Maduro (the official position of three-quarters of UN member states) was condemned as “shameful” (London Independent, 1/29/19). “Venezuela” is also used as a one-word response to shut down debate and counter any progressive idea or thought. While the panel on ABC’s The View (7/23/18) discussed progressive legislation like Medicare for All and immigration reform, conservative regular Meghan McCain responding by invoking Venezuela: “They’re starving to death” she explained, leaving the other panelists bemused. President Trump has also used it. In response to criticism from Senator Elizabeth Warren over his “Pocahontas” jibe, he replied that she would “make our country into Venezuela” (Reuters, 10/15/18). The weapon’s effectiveness can only be sustained through a media in lockstep with the government’s regime-change goals. That the media is fixated on the travails of a relatively small and unimportant country in America’s “backyard,” and that the picture of Venezuela is so shallow, is not a mistake. Rather, the simplistic narrative of a socialist dictatorship starving its own people provides great utility as a weapon for the establishment to beat back the domestic “threat” of socialism, by associating movements and figures such as Bernie Sanders, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Jeremy Corbyn with an evil caricature they have carefully crafted.
Corporate Propaganda Blitz Against Venezuela’s Elected President: MSM Will Not Let Facts Interfere With Coup Agenda
Facts Don’t Interfere With Propaganda Blitz Against Venezuela’s Elected PresidentJoe Emersberger Guaidó, anointed by Trump and a new Iraq-style Coalition of the Willing, did not even run in Venezuela’s May 2018 presidential election. In fact, shortly before the election, Guaidó was not even mentioned by the opposition-aligned pollster Datanálisis when it published approval ratings of various prominent opposition leaders. Henri Falcón, who actually did run in the election (defying US threats against him) was claimed by the pollster to basically be in a statistical tie for most popular among them. It is remarkable to see the Western media dismiss this election as “fraudulent,” without even attempting to show that it was “stolen“ from Falcón. Perhaps that’s because it so clearly wasn’t stolen. Graph: Approval Ratings of Main Venezuelan Leaders Nov 2016 - July 2018 Data from the opposition-aligned pollsters in Venezuela (via Torino Capital) indicates that Henri Falcón was the most popular of the major opposition figures at the time of the May 2018 presidential election. Nicolás Maduro won the election due to widespread opposition boycotting and votes drawn by another opposition candidate, Javier Bertucci. The constitutional argument that Trump and his accomplices have used to “recognize” Guaidó rests on the preposterous claim that Maduro has “abandoned” the presidency by soundly beating Falcón in the election. Caracas-based journalist Lucas Koerner took apart that argument in more detail. What about the McClatchy-owned Miami Herald's claim that Maduro “continues to reject international aid”? In November 2018, following a public appeal by Maduro, the UN did authorize emergency aid for Venezuela. It was even reported by Reuters (11/26/18), whose headlines have often broadcast the news agency’s contempt for Maduro’s government. It’s not unusual for Western media to ignore facts they have themselves reported when a major “propaganda blitz” by Washington is underway against a government. For example, it was generally reported accurately in 1998 that UN weapons inspectors were withdrawn from Iraq ahead of air strikes ordered by Bill Clinton, not expelled by Iraq’s government. But by 2002, it became a staple of pro-war propaganda that Iraq had expelled weapons inspectors (Extra! Update, 10/02). And, incidentally, when a Venezuelan NGO requested aid from the UN-linked Global Fund in 2017, it was turned down. Setting aside how effective foreign aid is at all (the example of Haiti hardly makes a great case for it), it is supposed to be distributed based on relative need, not based on how badly the US government wants somebody overthrown. But the potential for “aid” to alleviate Venezuela’s crisis is negligible compared to the destructive impact of US economic sanctions. Near the end of the Miami Herald article, author Jim Wyss cited an estimate from the thoroughly demonized Venezuelan government that US sanctions have cost it $30 billion, with no time period specified for that estimate. Again, this calls to mind the run-up to the Iraq invasion, when completely factual statements that Iraq had no WMDs were attributed to the discredited Iraqi government. Quoting Iraqi denials supposedly balanced the lies spread in the media by US officials like John Bolton, who now leads the charge to overthrow Maduro. Wyss could have cited economists independent of the Maduro government on the impact of US sanctions—like US economist Mark Weisbrot, or the emphatically anti-Maduro Venezuelan economist Francisco Rodríguez. Illegal US sanctions were first imposed in 2015 under a fraudulent “state of emergency” declared by Obama, and subsequently extended by Trump. The revenue lost to Venezuela’s government due to US economic sanctions since August 2017, when the impact became very easy to quantify, is by nowwell over $6 billion. That’s enormous in an economy that was only able to import about $11 billion of goods in 2018, and needs about $2 billion per year in medicines. Trump’s “recognition” of Guaidó as “interim president” was the pretext for making the already devastating sanctions much worse. Last month, Francisco Rodríguez revised his projection for the change in Venezuela’s real GDP in 2019, from an 11 percent contraction to 26 percent, after the intensified sanctions were announced. The $20 million in US “aid” that Wyss is outraged Maduro won’t let in is a rounding error compared to the billions already lost from Trump’s sanctions. Former US Ambassador to Venezuela William Brownfield, who pressed for more sanctions on Venezuela, dispensed with the standard “humanitarian” cover that US officials have offered for them (Intercept, 2/10/19):
And if we can do something that will bring that end quicker, we probably should do it, but we should do it understanding that it’s going to have an impact on millions and millions of people who are already having great difficulty finding enough to eat, getting themselves cured when they get sick, or finding clothes to put on their children before they go off to school. We don’t get to do this and pretend as though it has no impact there. We have to make the hard decision—the desired outcome justifies this fairly severe punishment.
Yes, China is Hoarding Gold: Is That Positive for Prices?
In mid-2015, China ended years of speculation over its gold reserves by announcing that it had 1,658 tons of gold. The People’s Bank of China (PBOC) had increased its official gold holdings by 60% since its last disclosure in 2009. China had 1,054 tons of gold in its reserves as of April 2009. By 2015, the price of bullion had dipped to its lowest since the 2011 gold bull run that pushed the metal to highs of $1,900 per ounce. The East Asian economic giant had been accumulating gold as the USD strengthened, pushing the prices of bullion to some of the lowest levels of the decade. China is an export powerhouse and is not only the world’s largest exporter but also the largest holder of foreign exchange (forex) reserves. The country has over $3.11 trillion worth of foreign exchange holdings, to shield it during economic emergencies. These vast forex reserves also buoy its native currency and give it much-needed clout in international affairs. These immense reserves increase the footprint of the US dollar in international trade. Its dollar reserves have also been a significant contributor to the current global savings glut. The Chinese manufacturing sector holds a lot of US government bonds, and these savings — plus those made by other Asian countries — have directed mass capital flows to US households. Beijing has, however, clarified that it is diversifying its reserves away from the dollar. Beijing is highly exposed to American currency. Its overdependence on the dollar has been behind its silent gold-buying spree that raised its reserves from 1,658 tons in 2015 to 1,848.31 tons by the fourth quarter of 2019. Economists note that China’s bid to decouple from the dollar heightened with the China-US trade war. The US threatened not only Chinese stocks listed in the US with delisting, but slapped massive tariffs on their exports. China, on the other hand, used its dollar-pegged currency, the Yuan, to fight back against the US’s punitive measures.
China Diversifying its Forex Reserves
In August, the PBOC allowed the Yuan’s value to fall against the dollar to cheapen its exports. The move increased the prices of American goods, a move that not only caused a massive shockwave in the market but also angered the US president so much that he called China an outright currency manipulator. Besides diversifying to other currencies, China has also accumulated “shadow reserves.” Diversification away from the USD will also give the Yuan a more significant role in global finance. It is this Chinese desire to counteract a highly US dollar-centric system that has seen the country buy up massive amounts of gold as part of its alternative investments. One factor that has gone almost unnoticed is the massive accumulation of gold by Chinese citizens. They have collectively imported over 12,000 tons of gold into the country since 2009. Switzerland is the world’s largest importer of gold, buying about 22% of all global gold imports as per 2018 data. It is closely followed by China, which raked in close to 16% of all gold imports in the same year. Hong Kong, India, and the United Kingdom are also part of the world’s biggest gold-buyer markets. Switzerland might be a global leader in gold imports, but it is also the largest exporter of the premier precious metal. The central European country is a gold refinery hub, and it is home to four of the world’s largest gold refineries. The mountainous country is home to Newmont Mining’s Valcambi SA, which refines close to 1,400 metric tonnes of the precious metal every year. Switzerland is such an exporter of gold that of the 3,100 tons of the yellow metal produced in the country in 2016, 2,716 tons went to exports.
China Keeps Most of its Gold
China is the world’s second-largest importer of gold, but unlike Switzerland, most of the gold China imports remain in China. As an illustration, China imported $64 billion worth of gold in 2016, and only exported a paltry $1.2 billion worth of it. In essence, China was $62.7 billion richer by the end of that year. The East Asian nation not only stores its imports but also buys a large share from Hong Kong, the fifth most prolific importer of the precious metal. The Pearl of the Orient bought 842 tons or 8.7% of the world’s gold imports in 2016. In that year, Hong Kong sold 1,337 tons to China, dipping its hands into its reserves in its bid to meet the insatiable Chinese demand for gold. The Chinese have not always had it easy with gold. Mao Zedong banned the individual purchase of gold, and the ban was enforced for decades afterward. The Chinese bank was the only buyer of gold in the country, and it only allocated its gold reserves to a small number of state-owned jewelers. In the early 2000s, the ban on individual gold purchases was lifted, and the Chinese gold rush began in earnest. The world’s busiest physical gold exchange was launched and opened to the public, flourishing as the government put measures in place that encouraged the gold trade. This excitement and clamor for gold moved a lot of gold from western vaults to the east as the most massive movement of gold recorded in recent history took place. Since then, the Chinese demand for gold takes 14% of the world’s supply, yet the country has been the largest producer of the yellow metal since 2007. The nation consumes over two times more gold than it mines with a large percentage of its citizens spending massive amounts of cash on gold adornments. Many Chinese millennials spend thousands of Yuan on fashionable jewelry. Their parents, on the other hand, buy 24-carat clunky gold jewelry, the perfect investment vehicle for that generation. The jewelry — evocative of gold ingots — is easy to sell and the money recouped when the need arises. They also buy matt ranges of gold jewelry, shunning tacky pure gold adornments for creative and lower carat gold designs.
Gold is a Safer Investment in a Debt-Ridden Global Economy
China has been a net importer of gold since the 1990s, but its significant purchases have increased since the global economic recession. The Chinese central bank — the supervisors of the Shanghai Gold Exchange — has encouraged the gold trade in the country by enabling the commerce of fine gold at its lowest spreads. Sun Zhaoxue, the China Gold Association president, has, in the past, said: “Individual investment demand is an essential component of China’s gold reserve system, and we should encourage individual investment demand for gold. Practice shows that gold possession by citizens is a useful supplement to national reserves and is very important to national financial security …. We should advocate to ‘store gold among the people’ [“People’s Gold”] and guide a healthy, positive development in this segment … This is the aim of our gold strategy.” She goes on to ask for a strategic national gold strategy to make China resilient against multiple economic occurrences. To this end, the Shanghai Gold Exchange has made tremendous steps in making the gold trade as easy as possible, even launching an app to aid it. China’s centuries-old infatuation with gold has led them to accumulate over 20,000 tons of gold because the People’s Bank of China does not buy gold from the domestic market. Consequently, all the gold that is purchased by the Chinese stays in the local market. Pundits also believe that the Chinese central bank holds more gold than its official reserve numbers portray. The economic giant underreports its gold holdings to enable it to accumulate more of the precious metal at lower prices. As China slowly delinks from a USD that has already lost its value due to prevailing high debt to GDP ratios globally, it stands out as one nation prepping for an oncoming economic catastrophe that could inevitably lift prices. The World Bank has already issued a warning that the current wave of debt is untenable. Global debt percentages now exceed 322% of GDP. Central banks have pushed the global economy to the brink due to easing policies meant to stimulate economic activity. Unfortunately, they find themselves intertwined in a broadening circle of money printing activities, which will eventually lead to extreme inflation. The management of inflation means that real rates will keep falling, and gold values will keep rising. In debt-ridden financial systems, he who holds the gold makes the rules. And China is ready to step up.
Why is it a Good Idea to Exchange Canadian Dollar Online?
The Canadian dollar is the official currency of Canada and is represented as CAD. The currency notes of the Canadian dollar are available in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100. Travelers who are traveling from India to Canada have to get their INR converted to CAD. The best way to do this would be to visit BookMyForex. You can get the best Canadian dollar rate on BookMyForex. The convenience of exchanging foreign currency online Although there are several ways in which you can get your INR converted to CAD, the currency exchange rates vary from one source to another. Out of all the available sources for currency exchange, the best forex rate is offered online by BookMyForex. BookMyForex is the largest and the first portal which offers foreign currency exchange online. You can check the live Canadian exchange rates here which are the same as what you would see on sites like Google, CNBC, etc. What BookMyForex does is, it compares the Canadian dollar rate today across several banks and financial centers and then displays the best Canadian exchange rate to you. The online conversion process makes currency exchange a simpler process without any hassle. All you have to do is buy the Canadian dollar at the best rate and we will deliver it to you within the minimum amount of time. The facility of freezing a forex rate online The Canadian dollar rate that is displayed on BookMyForex is transparent and live. These rates are almost 5% less than that of the forex rates offered by banks and money changers. BookMyForex gives you the facility of freezing rates online as well. This means that when you see a forex rate that seems suitable for you, you can freeze that particular rate and exchange currency at that rate within the next three days. Also, there are no hidden fees for exchanging currency via BookMyForex. If you want to get notified about the best dollar rate today, you can opt for the “Rate Alert” feature. This will notify you via email every time a good Canadian dollar rate is available. Wide range of product offering BookMyForex is undoubtedly the best source for exchanging currency online and it also provides multiple options for Canadian dollar products. When you use BookMyForex to exchange foreign currency, you can choose from a selected range of products like Canadian cash currency, Canadian traveler’s cheque, Canadian prepaid forex card, etc. These products can be greatly beneficial when you are traveling to Canada. Canadian forex cards are a much better option than carrying around cash as it is not only safer but it also provides other benefits as well. Apart from these products, BookMyForex also offers the service of money transfer of foreign currency. This can be done by either opting for a Canadian dollar demand draft or through Canadian dollar wire transfer. When you opt for this, the money transaction is carried out directly from an Indian bank to the bank in Canada.
Send Money To Canada At Best Canadian Dollar Rates On BookMyForex
Are you looking for a good forex company or a bank for money transfer to Canada from India? Sending money from India to Canada is easy and simple with BookMyForex and you can check the live Canadian dollar rate on BookMyForex by just doing it all online from the comforts of your home. Sending money to another Country basically overseas or Abroad is called remittance and Remittance can be counted as two types. Outward Remittance: When You Send Money From India to A Foreign Country Inward Remittance: When You Send Money To India from a Foreign Country Methods of Sending Money To Canada: You can send money to Canada from India through following two methods: Wire Transfer: Wire transfers are direct bank to bank transfers where money from an Indian bank account is directly transferred to your beneficiary's bank account abroad. Popular opinion is that Wire transfers from India are the best and most convenient way to transfer money abroad -Money exchangers: They are fast but very expensive and not entirely reliable or secure. You don't need an account but the process is time-consuming and you need proof of residence and identity to send money from India. Money changers may want you to register and verify the recipient or the beneficiary. This is to protect the security of your fund, to prevent fraud, and to make future remittances more streamlined. -Online Forex Companies like BookMyForex- It provides you Fast, safe, reliable, and secure. Zero charges, no hidden costs, and better rates than anyone else. There are several aspects in which BookMyForex far outweighs other money changers and banks when you need to send money from India to Canada or any other country. We will tell you how... Company Like BookMyForex Vs Banks The exchange rates offered by banks are up to 5% higher than those as compared by BookMyForex. Also, banks follow the practice of offering one card rates or daily rates that work out to far more expensive than live and real-time rates offered by BookMyForex (the first and only currency exchange in India to do so) for money transfer to Canada from India. On the other hand, since BookMyForex is an online platform for forex transactions, you can book your order online anytime and from anywhere as per your convenience. You get guaranteed best rates when you send money to Canada from India. Online Exchangers VS Offline Exchangers Many forex players are not sure about the documentation required for money remittance and can make you go back and forth unnecessarily, which can be quite a pain! Just like banks, other currency exchangers also operate at 'daily rates' which are not comparable to the live rates offered by BookMyForex for money transfer to Canada from India. Some local money changers offer very lucrative exchange rates provided you don't take a bill for your transaction to send money from India to Canada. Doing so means buying currency from the black market, and if caught, both, the dealer and the customer, are punishable by law and can land you behind bars. Would you really want to take that risk? Being an online Company, BookMyForex provides customers the convenience of ordering online and the guaranteed best rates to send money from India to Canada because there are no infrastructure costs involved. Now, get the currency Exchange services from cities like Mohali, Patiala, Dehradun and other big cities like Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai
Are you thinking to make an abroad trip? Would you like to send gift cash to your relative in abroad? Presently, it is a simpler task with currency exchange alternatives that are available. Banks offer you currency exchange at a reasonable cost. At that point Moneychangers additionally offer currency exchange yet with a charge. The best choice in the present time is online Forex sites. You'll get a fair exchange deal for money and the advantage of Forex card too. If you want to try currency exchange online , at that point you can sign on to Bookmyforex.com and get foreign currency on BookMyForex on live and best rates. The site offers also gives you a more benefits for exchange with best rate alternatives that change as per the market situation. Best Ways To Exchange Currency Online Considering where is the best currency exchange near you, at that point you don't need to travel go for exchange. It's simpler to exchange currency through an online webpage Bookmyforex.com. The site has collaborated with more than 5000+ Banks and Moneychangers. It delivers Forex exchange in more than 650 areas crosswise over India. The procedure is simpler and it takes around twenty-four hours to get your currency exchanged. Cash trade has never been such a simpler errand. The site likewise offers included highlights with cash trade. The Reasonable Rate Alternative Bookmyforex.com refreshes the Forex rates after every three seconds. It considers the fluctuations in rates giving you the best possible to pick the most ideal rate. With this choice, you can freeze the rates for three days. After paying a upfront charge of 2% lock the lowest possible rate. You can buy foreign currency on BookMyForex at a similar rate. It additionally gives you an alternative to set a notification alert. You have to set your ideal rate alert on the site. In the event that your ideal rate matches the rate on site, you'll get an instant notification and this is the best way to save your money and effort. The Forex Card If you want to use a credit card on your foreign trips. Consider Forex card as it preloads the money of that spot. Forex exchange is simpler with a Forex card as you can load the accurate amount of money you need. Likewise, you can reload the money if there is no balance on your card. Forex card is also called a traveler's card or prepaid card. At that point you additionally have a choice of a traveler's cheque. It is given in the currency of the place you are visiting. You can encash it or likewise use it for any purchase you made. Buy Forex card is the most flexible option if you are planning to go on a holiday abroad. The Best Deals On Currency Exchange, Thinking about what might be the best alternative for currency exchange. Then it is best way to login to Bookmyforex.com. Apart from money exchange gives, you additionally get best customer support. On the off chance that you are left with any issues, you can contact the team. Nowadays digital system is booming, so it is smarter to exploit it in the correct manner. Online Forex exchange is not only the feasible way but also a cheap. You'll save money exchange charges and expenses. Buy Forex exchange is not a hassle anymore; you can do it in no time.
Individuals exchange money for various purposes. Do you have to exchange currency for an abroad trip you have quite recently arranged or for education purposes? You may likewise require Forex exchange for reemitting an amount for urgent purposes abroad. Whatever be the explanation, it is imperative to know how you can exchange currency without any hiccups. Banks, Moneychangers, Airport stands, and online Forex sites can help with foreign currency exchange in bangalore . From these choices, online sites give you the best rates and are totally adaptable. Online currency exchange sites give you incredible highlights and save on your time. You can just simply type 'foreign exchange near me' with the choice of your preferred area to discover a Forex exchange site. Exchange stages accessible By visiting a Bank, get your currency exchanged. You'll have to pay charges on exchange from the Bank. What's more, the rate of exchange is fixed by the Bank as it isn't updated on an hourly basis. It can be a costly deal on exchanging currency from the Bank. Moneychangers offer you great deals on the adaptable exchange of cash but again you need to pay the cost of exchange. The approved RBI moneychangers do charge more for money exchange in bangalore. The most feasible way to exchange is maybe through online stages. Online Forex sites offer complete convenience on currency exchange in bangalore . A site like Bookmyforex.com offers you the best exchange rates that are updated at regular intervals. You'll get the advantage of freezing the rate for three days by paying a upfront charge of 2%. When you choose a rate, feel free to buy Forex. You'll likewise get the advantage of home delivery through the site. That will save money and efforts both. Get the best Currency Exchange on the web Online currency exchange sites provide you with included advantages for exchange. If you are planning to travel aboard, buy a Forex card that is preloaded with the currency of that spot. A Forex card can be reloaded at that time when you are having short of currency with you. Most Forex sites also offer traveler's cheque. It is issued in the currency of the place you are heading to. An online webpage like Bookmyforex.com offers you rate advantage too. Set a notification on the site with respect to your exchange rate. You'll get a notice or email when the rate is near to your desired set rate. The money you save on exchange can be used on your trip for shopping, so consider it. Online Exchange ways, If you are still thinking 'where is money exchange near me', at that point head to online webpage Bookmyforex.com. The site gives services to more than 650 cities of India and partners with more than 5000 channels including Banks and authorized moneychangers. Exchanging money has never been this simple. There are no hidden fees or charges to be paid on exchange. The site additionally offers the best customers assistance and referral plans that will assist you with getting some fast rewards on currency exchange. In spite of the fact that there are numerous approaches to exchange currency, online Forex sites are just a click away. The site offers transparent services so you can expect nothing only the best.
Are you planning a foreign trip? Do you want to send gift cash to your relative aboard? Now, it is an easier task with currency exchange options that are available. Banks offer you currency exchange for a fair price. Then Moneychangers also offer currency exchange but with a charge. The most feasible option in today's time is online Forex sites. You'll get a fair exchange deal for currency and the benefit of Forex card as well. If you want to try currency exchange online, then you can log on to Bookmyforex.com. The site offers amazing benefits for exchange with flexible rate options that change according to the market. Ways to exchange currency online Thinking about where is the best currency exchange near me, then you don't have to manually travel for exchange. It’s easier to exchange currency through an online site Bookmyforex.com. The site has partnered with more than 5000+ Banks and Moneychangers. It delivers Forex exchange in more than 650 locations across India. The process is easier and it takes about twenty-four hours to get your currency exchanged. Money exchange has never been such an easier task. The site also offers added features with currency exchange. The fair rate option Bookmyforex.com updates the Forex rates after every three seconds. It takes into account the fluctuations in rates giving you the option to choose the best possible rate. With this option, you can freeze the rates for three days. Upon paying an upfront fee of 2% lock the lowest possible rate. You can buy the currency at the same rate. It also gives you an option to set a notification alert. You need to set your desired rate alert on the site. If your desired rate matches the rate on-site, you'll get an instant notification. This will help to save your money and effort. The Forex card If you use a credit card on your foreign trips, then you need to change your option. Consider Forex card as it preloads the money of that place. Forex exchange is easier with a Forex card as you can load the exact amount of money you need. Also, you can reload the money if there is no balance on your card. Forex card is also known as a traveler's card or prepaid card. Then you also have an option of a traveler's cheque. It is issued in the currency of the place you are visiting. You can encash it or also use it for any purchase made. Forex card is the most flexible option if you are planning a holiday abroad. The best deal, “Wondering what would be the best option for foreign exchange near me.” Then it is best to try Bookmyforex.com. Apart from currency exchange deals, you also get customer support. If you are stuck with any issues, you can contact the team. Digital space is booming, so it is better to take advantage of it in the right way. Online Forex exchange is not only feasible but also cheap. You'll save on exchange charges and costs. Forex exchange is not a hassle anymore; you can do it in no time.
Orientexchange is a leading foreign currency exchange in India. buy & sell forex online, with best price compare to market rates. best money exchange, money changer online, buy currency online get door step delivery.
Orientexchange is a leading foreign currency exchange in India. buy & sell forex online, with the best price compare to market rates. best money exchange, money changer online, buy currency online get doorstep delivery.
Forex card is also called as Travelcard or Prepaid card. It can be used to make a payment when you visit abroad. You can preload the currency of the place before traveling that enables you to access money for any purchase you make abroad. The best part is the Forex card in India is available without any added charges. You can buy a Forex card from online Forex sites. A site like Bookmyforex.com offers you a Forex card with added features. Forex card rates can fluctuate according to the market. But, you'll get easy access to the best rates from the site. Bookmyforex reloads card feature also lets you reload when there is no money left in the card, which can save your time. Bookmyforex Travel/Forex card Forex cards are accepted anywhere across the globe. Irrespective of your location, you can buy a Forex card online in India. The Forex card is acceptable in more than 30 million sites and 2 million ATMs. Its also accepted in more than 1 million eCommerce sites. You can load up to 16 currencies in your Travel or Forex card. It lets you use the same multi-currency card in multiple countries. You don't have to load individual currencies of the place in the Forex card. If you need to travel to two countries, this is the easiest option available. No hidden charges International Debit and Credit cards charge you extra for every spending you make on your trip. Unlike these cards that levy a charge of 2 to 3.5% on an exchange, Forex cards offer to exchange currency for free. You don't have to pay apart from the nominal charge for the card, there are no added exchange charges so that is the biggest advantage. Also, you don't have to pay to buy a Forex card. All the charges are made at exact interbank rates. Applying for a Forex card You can apply for a Forex card online from the site Bookmyforex.com. When you choose the option to buy Forex card, you need to provide relevant details of your valid passport, a valid visa of the country you are travailing to. You also need to provide a confirmed ticket with travel within 60 days along with your PAN card details. When all your documents are verified by the site, you'll have to make payment. You'll receive your Forex card as early as 24 hours from the site with the home delivery option available. The eligible age to apply for the Forex card is 14 years. It can also be handy for your children planning to study abroad. Reloading of the Forex card Bookmyforex reloads card option provides you with a simple reloading option. You need to ask for a reload form, fill in the form, scan and send the document via email. After you mail the document, you'll receive the payment link from the site. Make the payment and your card will be reloaded within 24 hours. Even if you are out of cash on your foreign trip, the reloading option is like a savior for you. You don't need to spend on your credit card anymore. The features of the Forex card Forex cards can be carried at a fixed rate so you don't have to worry about fluctuations in the rates. You don't have to pay extra every time you need to reload a Forex card. It is safe and expedient to use. The Forex Card can be reloaded at any time and from any place so you don't have to think about the location. You'll be given cash assistance from Bookmyforex.com when you lose your card or someone steals it. The balance amount can also be blocked if you lose your card and the remaining balance can be transferred to a new Forex card. There is an add on card facility available on the Forex card that makes your experience even better. Forex card has many names like Bookmyforex travel card, prepaid card, multicurrency card but it serves the same purpose of providing you with complete flexibility. You can access money in local currency abroad with the card. Log on to Bookmyforex.com to apply for a Forex card today. Make your travel experience fun with hassle-free money.
If you need to travel abroad or exchange currency for emergency remittance, you should know about currency exchange in India. Are you wondering, 'Where is foreign exchange near me', well there are banks, moneychangers and online sites that'll help you through the process. Banks and money changers charge extra for currency exchange, unlike online Forex sites. The exchange process Still worried and thinking "where is currency exchange near me'. You simply have to log into Bookmyforex.com. Choose your location, enter the rate, and amount. With uploading the relevant documents, you can book your order. The best part about online order is, the site will get it delivered at your doorstep. As Bookmyforex.com delivers to more than 650 cities across India, you can get Forex delivery anywhere in India. The exchange process is simple and your order can be delivered on the same day. You do not have to pay extra for Forex exchange in India as the site charges a nominal amount on exchange. Things have gone the digital way today and online payments have become common. Its time you use online Forex sites for currency exchange rather than moneychangers. The process is flexible and transparent and safety is guaranteed as well. Explore online options A site like Bookmyforex.com offers complete expediency in currency exchange. You'll get the best-updated rate options. The site updates the live feed of rates every three seconds. You'll be able to freeze the rate for three days by paying a normal upfront charge. With rate alert option, the site sends you a notification of your desired rate so that saves on your money as well. Bookmyforex.com offers you many features for currency exchange. You can also choose a Forex card or traveler's cheque for exchange. Forex card is a preloaded card with the currency of the place you are visiting. Traveler's cheque is issued in the currency of your preferred location. It is easy to make payments with preloaded Forex cards. You'll get the benefit of flexible Forex rates with the option of Forex cards. Get the best deal, Get your money exchanged in a hassle-free way with Bookmyforex.com. You can get the best deal with live rate advantage and fair prices. Log in today for Forex exchange and avail great offers.
Do You Know Dollar Rate in Delhi Today? - Read to Know!
Delhi being the capital of India has always been the hub for foreign exchange. Due to National and International tourism activity, the foreign exchange demand in Delhi is always high. Banks offer a rate that is constant on foreign exchange. But, online sites update the rates depending on market trends. Do you know the dollar rate today in Delhi? Well, its easier to check the rate from the site Bookmyforex.com. The dollar rate in Delhi is updated every three seconds on the site. In no time, you can freeze the rate of your choice and get your money exchanged. Dollar rates today in Delhi also depend on demand and supply. Though the demand for exchange is high, it also depends on the person who needs to exchange currency for a purpose. Why you should choose an online Forex site for exchange? Today dollar rate in Delhi may change depending on live market rate feed. If you need to exchange currency from INR to USD, then an online site like Bookmyforex.com offers you the best features. You'll get the lowest exchange rate guarantee from the site along with the rate alert feature. A rate alert feature sends you a notification when the rate is near your desired rate. You'll be able to book your exchange order according to the exact dollar rate in Delhi. The process is flexible and transparent. The online site also offers you a rate freeze feature option. Suppose you come across a low dollar rate today in Delhi. You'll be able to freeze the rate for three days. You'll be able to use the same rate you freeze for three days for an exchange. This ensures that you have a safe and secure transaction execution. For people who stay in Delhi, its actually time saving because the order is home delivered by Bookmyforex.com Get the best dollar rate in Delhi You can simply log on to Bookmyforex.com and enter your location to get the dollar rate today in Delhi. The exchange rates online will help you with your Forex transactions. But the rates do not remain constant. They fluctuate and the site updates it every three seconds. You need to make an early booking if you want to exchange your currency at a low rate possible. Irrespective of your location or place in Delhi, you can book a rate and order Forex online. This saves on your effort of manually finding the rate or going to moneychangers for rate and exchange. The many benefits to choosing an online Forex site Bookmyforex.com offers you the best rates that are better than banks and moneychangers. The live rates are transparent and competitive. With the same-day delivery feature, you'll be able to receive your order on the same day. Bookmyforex.com offers you best customer support, if you are stuck with any issue regarding Forex order online, you can contact the support team. On regular booking of exchange orders, the site provides loyalty ad referral benefits. You can earn money by referring your friends and family for an exchange order in Delhi. Buying exchange Forex rates are live on Bookmyforex.com. After checking today's dollar rate in Delhi, you can buy or sell USD on a similar live rate. The site features only authorized RBI vendors so it ensures complete quality check upon your booking. The site offers free home delivery orders above 50,000, so you can book your order from home or office and get it delivered in no time. Foreign exchange in Delhi is easier with online features offered by the site. You can also use a Forex card for exchange. A Forex card is a preloaded cash card with currency of the particular place you are visiting. It also reloads the card with no added fees. Get the best deal, The Dollar rate in Delhi is never constant and fluctuates according to the economy. Online sites provide you complete expediency so that you get a fair rate advantage on the exchange deal you choose. Get your exchange from the comfort of your home in Delhi, just log on to the site Bookmyforex.com.
Orientexchange is a leading foreign currency exchange in India. buy & sell forex online, with the best price compare to market rates. best money exchange, money changer online, buy currency online get doorstep delivery.
Banks, Moneychangers, Airport kiosks, and online Forex sites can help with currency exchange in India. From these options, online sites provide you with the best rates and are completely flexible. Online currency exchange sites provide you great features and save on your time. You can simply exchange currency near you with the option of your preferred location. Exchange platforms available
By visiting a Bank, get your currency exchanged. You'll need to pay charges on exchange from the Bank. And, the rate of exchange is fixed by the Bank as it is not updated on an hourly basis. It can be an expensive deal exchanging currency from the Bank.
Moneychangers offer you good deals on the flexible exchange of currency but again you have to pay the price for exchange. The authorized RBI moneychangers do charge more for currency exchange in India.
On reaching the place or destination, you can use Airport kiosks for exchange. You'll have to shell out extra as there is a charge on exchange with this option as well.
The most feasible way to exchange is perhaps through online platforms. Online Forex sites offer complete expediency on foreign currency exchange in India. A site like Bookmyforex.com offers you the best exchange rates that are updated every five seconds. You'll get the benefit of freezing the rate for three days by paying an upfront charge of 2%. Once you choose a rate, go ahead and buy Forex. You'll also get the benefit of home delivery through the site. That'll save on time and effort both.
Get the best currency exchange online
Online currency exchange sites provide you with added benefits for exchange. If you are planning to travel aboard, buy a Forex card that is preloaded with the currency of that place. A Forex card can be reloaded if you are short of currency. Most Forex sites also offer traveler's cheque.
It is issued in the currency of the place you are heading to. An online site like Bookmyforex.com offers you rate advantage as well. Set a notification on the site regarding your exchange rate. You'll receive a notification or email when the rate is near your desired set rate. The money you save on exchange can be utilized on your trip for shopping, so think about it.
The exchange ways, If you are still wondering 'where is currency exchange near me', then head to online site Bookmyforex.com. The site provides services to more than 650 cities of India and partners with more than 5000 channels including Banks and authorized moneychangers. Exchanging money has never been this simple. There are no hidden fees or charges to be paid on exchange. The site also offers the best customer service and referral plans that'll help you get some quick rewards on currency exchange. Though there are many ways to exchange currency, online Forex sites are just a click away. The site offers transparent services so you can expect nothing but the best.
Orientexchange is a leading foreign currency exchange in India. buy & sell forex online, with the best price compare to market rates. best money exchange, money changer online, buy currency online get doorstep delivery.
Times have changed and how. You don't need to rely on traditional ways like Banks and Moneychangers to buy Forex today. In this digital era, everything can be done online. You can buy Forex online after comparing various rates. You'll get the benefit of the lowest rate and it'll save on your time as well. A site like Bookmyforex.com offers great features on Forex exchange. You have the convenience to buy Forex online with lock-in options. The best part is online sites do not charge extra on Forex exchange, unlike Banks that charge 2.5% to 6% on exchange. Get the best rate advantage with easy Forex delivery across many locations in India. Complete expediency and best rate advantage The online currency is updated according to market fluctuations. The live rate feed will help you get the best rate if you want to buy Forex online. Bookmyforex.com offers a rate alert feature on Forex exchange. It notifies you when the rate is set near your desired rate giving you a fair price advantage. With online booking of Forex, you can get it delivered at your home. Bookmyforex.com takes care of remittance, buying and selling needs that offer complete flexibility. It also offers Forex cards and money transfers if you want to carry or remit money abroad. How you can buy Forex online? Simple steps online can help you buy Forex. You need to login to the site that offers you Forex exchange. You need to select the location or the city you stay in. Then choose the currency that you need. Bookmyforex.com offers you more than 29 currencies so it lets you exchange according to your needs. You'll have an option of selecting from currency and Forex cards. Forex card offers preloaded currency of the place you are visiting. You'll also have the option of a traveler's cheque for exchange. Then choose the Forex amount and the rate on offer. You'll get the benefit of the preferred rate for exchange if you have frozen the rate. This can be done for three days by paying an upfront charge of 2%. Once you get the final amount, you can finally proceed to buy Forex from the site. Choose a delivery option to Buy my Forex available and you are sorted. Advantages of buying Forex online
Saves on effort
Why go to a Bank or Moneychanger when you can save on your time and effort. Forex exchange online offers complete ease of buying. You can get amazing customer support with door delivery with no added costs. All major foreign currencies are supported on online portals specially Bookmyforex.com.
Choose the best time and freeze the rates
With rate alert feature, choose the best time to buy Forex. The exchange rate can be frozen for three days so you'll get the advantage of rate if you buy Forex online. The live rates are updated after every three seconds. With the rate card feature, you'll get to choose from updated rates so it helps you get the best deal.
Simple modes of payment with no hidden charges
Buy Forex online with simple modes of payment offered by online sites. Most sites offer cards, cash and net banking facilities on exchange. It also depends on what kind of mode you choose. A site like Bookmyforex.com offers no hidden charges on Forex exchange. You need to pay the upfront fees and a nominal charge. Banks and Moneychangers charge anywhere between 6 to 12% on Forex exchange. Save on added costs and get the best option available. Buy with the app, People now prefer to make payments and buy through apps. It’s easier with Smartphones and it also saves time. If you wish to buy Forex online on the app, then there is Bookmyforex app that allows you to buy Forex in no time. You'll get complete features on the app as it is on the website. You need to download the app to select the process and book your order. Are you contemplating where to buy my Forex? Then head to online Forex exchange sites and apps. The process is simple and transparent. Within no time, you can get your Forex delivered at home.
Orientexchange is a leading foreign currency exchange in India. buy & sell forex online, with best price compare to market rates. best money exchange, money changer online, buy currency online get door step delivery.
Orientexchange is a leading foreign currency exchange in India. buy & sell forex online, with the best price compare to market rates. best money exchange, money changer online, buy currency online get doorstep delivery.
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